Coding Standards

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Many of these standards are automatically checked by the Coding Style Checker. A sample of output from the style checker may be found here.

Read this first

Some of the information on this page is out of date (for example, the use of the NMPI interface). However, most of the material here is still relevant and provides a good guide to coding for MPICH.

General Principles

Coding standards are intended to make a large project more successful and enjoyable. The basic goals and some of their implications are the following:

Make the code easy to maintain by the team

The code needs to be readable by people other than the author; printed formats should avoid ugly line wraps, and the code should pass strict compilation checks. The C preprocessor should be used sparingly and carefully. Make sure that you develop, document, and discuss a design before and while implementing it. Use the wiki to make it easy to share the design with the group and with others.

Make the code robust and reliable

Avoid making old errors (for example, avoid using routines that don't check for buffer overflows). Avoid portability problems. Do not assume that the whole world is gcc and gnumake; refer to the standards rather than what you find on any one system.

Make the performance critical code fast

Use the language features such as const and restrict that can help the compiler generate good code. See also Performance Tricks.

Make the code flexible and adaptable

Design a clean interface. Use information-hiding (keep the scope of internal information as narrow as possible, within a single file when it makes sense).

Make it easy to navigate the code

There must be design documents; an overview document can be invaluable in understanding the organization of the code. Use comments within the code to remind the reader about particular issues. As one example, anywhere memory is allocated, there should be a comment explaining where the memory is freed.

Other General Guidelines

In addition, these general guidelines can help improve the code:

  1. Make sure that the code is well-documented. Each function should have a brief description of its function and parameters; for less-used functions, it is helpful to indicate what functions and/or files may call this function. Modules should contain and/or point to design documentation.
  2. Make the interface between modules and other units of the code small. Do not let the code see all of the internals of structures (see information-hiding above).
  3. Avoid "pick and put" programming. Such programming is impossible to maintain (how do you know that all instances remain the same after bug fixes?) and usually indicates a flaw in the project design, since duplicate functionality should be captured within a (documented and tested!) function.
  4. Use type qualifiers to indicate the intended use of parameters and variables. For example, an input value that is only read should be declared const.
  5. Avoid overuse of ifdef. Depending on the issue, the following alternatives can be used:
    • Selecting different implementations for an operation. Instead of an ifdef chain, define a function interface for that operation and then invoke that function. Function pointers can be used as a way to allow multiple choices of implementation within a single executable; otherwise, just use a function call instead of ifdefs
    • Including header files. Ifdefs should only be used around optional header files, such as stdlib.h (optional in the sense that they primarily provide function prototypes and their omission will not cause the compilation to fail). If some part of the code depend on the existence of the header file, then instead of testing for the header file with
     #ifdef HAVE_FOO_H
     #include 
     #endif
    (and similar lines for each header file used), check for the necessary prerequisites in one place, then define a single ifdef check for the block of code that will use those header files. Something like this might be appropriate
     #if defined(HAVE_FOO_H) && defined(HAVE_BAR_H) && defined(HAVE_FOOBAR_FUNC)
     #define USE_FOOBAR
     #endif 
     ...
     #if defined(USE_FOOBAR)
     #include 
     #include 
     ...
     #endif
    Note that the use of USE_FOOBAR is also an example of using a single, common test, rather than attempting to repeat the same complex test in multiple places within the code
  6. Avoid gratuitous changes to the code. Do not reformat the code unless is violates some coding rule. Note that some tools, such as the document generator, expect and require certain formatting (which is consistent with our coding standards), and the unnecessary changes that someone made to the MPICH code broke the generation of documentation and manual pages.
  7. Understand the consequences of changes to the design before you make them. As an example, the original design for the error code generation system used the standard printf formats to allow the use of a gcc extension to check for consistent format strings in the error reporting code. This is particularly important because it is very difficult to check that the format strings are consistent through other means. A change to the error reporting system threw out this test without providing a replacement, making the current code unreliable. Alternative design choices were and are available that would have preserved the ability to exploit the gcc compile-time checks.
  8. Do not ignore error returns from functions. Check everything (a major flaw in gcc is that it has no warning mode that flags ignored function return values). Do not assume that buffers "will be long enough". In the case of system calls, make sure that you test for EINTR and handle that case appropriately.

As of this writing, the current code does not follow these principles. I hope that the team will embrace (and improve) these standards and help move the code to something of which we can be proud.

Basic Source File Structure

All source files follow a similar structure; the file maint/template.c gives an example. Important parts of this file are:

Style header

This sets the style for the file and sets a common indentation amount for C and C++ programs. By setting a common indentation amount, we avoid having CVS record changes to a file that are only changes in indentation amount. In addition, the style header is important for C++ header files so that the style checker will know that the file is C++ instead of C.

Copyright

This ensures that everyone knows that we wrote this file and that we did not take it from someone else. This is very important groups that are using MPICH as the basis of their own MPI implementation (it makes it clear who owns the source and under what license the file is made available).

Header files

Header files should have their contents wrapped within an ifndef of the form

 #ifndef FILENAME_H_INCLUDED
 #define FILENAME_H_INCLUDED
 ...
 #endif

where the FILENAME is the name of the file, in upper case. The exact form of this is important because the coding style checker expects to see this particular form (the name format is chosen to reduce the chance that the name will conflict with a name used in a system header file).

In addition, lines within files should be limited to 80 columns; this fits many common displays and allows most users to place two pages side-by-side. (An absolute maximum is 100 characters; more than this, and printing with enscript can become ugly.)

Do not "reflow" text or code. This produces an unnecessary change event for CVS and can break some tools. For example, unnecessary and gratuitous changes to the function declarations for the MPI routines caused the code that generates the manual pages for the MPI routines to generate unattractive and in some cases unreadable manual pages.

Code Cleanup Script

This script (code-cleanup.sh) can be used to cleanup whitespace, comments, and line-wrapping in existing source files. It is a good idea to run it on any newly created files in the git repo.

Routine Names

Routine names should be chosen in a way that (1) is descriptive of their function and (2) is clearly distinct from any name that may be used by another runtime library or user code. To achieve this, we have chosen to reserve a few prefixes for the use of the MPICH implementation:

MPI_, PMPI_, MPIR_, MPIU_, MPID_, MPIDI_, mpi_, pmpi_
These are used for the MPI routines and common utilities used to implement the MPI routines
PMI_, PMIU_, PMII_
These are used for the process manager interface
ADIO_, ADIOI_
These are used for the ROMIO implementation of MPI-IO.

Macro Names

Just like routine names, it is important to pick macro names to avoid possible conflicts with macros defined in system header files.

MPIR_, MPID_, MPIU_, MPIDU_, MPICH_, MPIO_,
Used for internal features of the MPICH implementation
F77_
Used primarily for Fortran features, such a global name mapping
DEBUG_
Used for debugging
_H_INCLUDED
This suffix should be used as the test for including a header (.h) file
HAVE_, USE_, NEEDS_, WITH_
These are generated by configure and some of our configure macros

In addition to these, the coding style checker recognizes many macro names that are part of the standard C header files or the Unix header files. Additional names can be added by editing the file cppdefines.pl used by the style checker.

Some macro names should never be used. For example, the C standard specifies that names beginning with a double underscore belong to the runtime system and compiler and must not be changed by the user. In addition, these are private to specific compiler implementations, and should not be tested within user code.

In environments with gcc (such as Linux), it is tempting to define either __USE_xxx (such as __USE_MISC) or _BSD_SOURCE in order to access some element of a system header file that is guarded with one of these macros. This is a very bad idea and is not portable. The use of a __USE_xxx macro is invalid; the use of the _BSD_SOURCE and related macros assumes a gcc environment and is not portable. Instead, test for the necessary feature within configure. If it is necessary to compile with a certain feature set when using gcc (such as BSD_SOURCE), then add this definition at configure time so that a consistent compilation feature set will be used. Note that other, non-gcc environments will not use the _BSD_SOURCE and related feature macros, so code that depends on these is not portable.

Macros used semantically like functions should have names that are all uppercase. This makes it easy to recognize that a statement is a macro rather than a function call. This is particularly important when evaluating and understanding performance critical code; every function invocation is a potential performance bug.

Using MPI routines within the MPI implementation

This section is out of date. The nested methods are no longer used. It is no longer possible to use the NMPI interface to acquire trace information my exploiting the profiling interface

A number of the routines that implement MPI wish to use other MPI functions; for example, the implementation of the MPI collective functions uses MPI point-to-point functions. However, this must be done with some care. There are two issues:

  1. Whether the MPI or PMPI routine is used
  2. How are errors handled

To deal with the first issue, routines in the MPI implementation that call MPI routines should call NMPI_xxx instead of PMPI_xxx or MPI_xxx. These names are defined in src/include/nmpi.h; if you need a routine that is not defined there, make sure that you add it (in both MPI and PMPI versions). By default, MPICH will then use the PMPI routines, but if you configure with the option --enable-nmpi-as-mpi, the MPI versions will be used instead. This can be helpful when using profiling tools to understand the use of MPI routines within the MPICH implementation.

The second issue (errors) is handled by indicating that an MPI call is being made within another MPI routine; this is a nested call. All MPI routines that are used within an routine must be surrounded by nest increment and decrement calls:


 MPIR_Nest_incr();
 ...
 NMPI_Send( ... );

 MPIR_Nest_decr();

If MPICH_DEBUG_NESTING is defined, additional debugging checks will be executed by the nest increment and decrement routines to ensure that they are properly matched; in particular, that a MPIR_Nest_decr is called in the same file in which the matching MPIR_Nest_incr was called.

Argument Declarations

The MPI standard specifies the calling sequences for the MPI routines. These specifications were originally "old-style" C and did not make best use of the C language. As of MPI-3, the calling sequences for MPI routines have been improved, using const and array ([]) notation.

For both best performance from optimizing compilers and for clarity in intent, internal routines should use the following forms for declarations. In addition, performance-sensitive routines should use restrict.

Argument Usage Declaration
input value const <type> a
input pointer to fixed value const <type> *a
fixed input pointer to value <type> *const a
input array const <type> const a[]
output value <type> *a
output in array <type> a[]
output array <type> *a[]

Global Variables

Global variables should be avoided as much as possible. When they are needed, they should follow the same naming convention as routines (e.g., use one of the common prefixes). In addition, they should be initialized. On some systems, uninitialized global variables are marked as so-called "common" symbols. These symbols are not found when an application is linked with a library that contains them. OS/X (and it is reported that FreeBSD has the same behavior) uses this convention (this seems to clearly violate the spirit if not the letter of the C standard). To avoid problems with these systems, it is best to initialize all global variables (while it is possible to force gcc, with the -fno-common argument, to fix this, that is not necessarily portable to other compilers).

Returning Error Codes

Error Code Overview

The MPI standard requires integer error codes to be returned from top level MPI functions. Internally MPICH uses integer error codes to manage errors and error messages as well. The MPIR_Err_create_code function is at the core of this functionality and its prototype looks like this:


 int MPIR_Err_create_code( int lastcode, int fatal, const char fcname[], 
                           int line, int error_class, const char generic_msg[],
                           const char specific_msg[], ... )

If you were to use the function directly a call would look like this:


 mpi_errno = MPIR_Err_create_code( mpi_errno, MPIR_ERR_RECOVERABLE, FCNAME,
                                   __LINE__, MPI_ERR_OTHER, "**mpi_attr_put",
                                  "**mpi_attr_put %C %d %p", comm, keyval, attr_value);

The bad news is that this is largely ugly, error-prone boilerplate code. The good news is that there are convenience macros. One important thing to notice about this example is that mpi_errno is used by the function and then assigned the return value of the function. This is useful because it allows errors to wrap other errors much in the same way that you might nest exceptions in Java. If lastcode is MPI_SUCCESS (0) then the returned error code will be the bottom of the error stack.

Function Error Handling Skeleton/Example

 #undef FUNCNAME
 #define FUNCNAME myfunc
 #undef FCNAME
 #define FUNCNAME MPIDI_QUOTE(FUNCNAME)
 int myfunc(int in_arg1, int in_arg2, int *out_arg1)
 {
     int mpi_errno = MPI_SUCCESS;
     MPIDI_STATE_DECL(MPID_STATE_MYFUNC);
 
     MPIDI_FUNC_ENTER(MPID_STATE_MYFUNC);
 
     /* function body */
     MPIU_ERR_CHKANDJUMP(in_arg2 == 0, mpi_errno, MPI_ERR_OTHER, "**dividebyzero");
     *out_arg1 = in_arg1 / in_arg2;
 
     mpi_errno = MPID_Do_something(*out_arg1);
     if (mpi_errno) MPIU_ERR_POP(mpi_errno);
 
 fn_exit:
     MPIDI_FUNC_EXIT(MPID_STATE_MYFUNC);
     /* this should be the only return statement in the function */
     return mpi_errno;
 fn_fail:
     /* any cleanup on failure occurs here, releasing acquired resources, etc */
     goto fn_exit;
 }

There are a few key points to notice here:

  • All but the most trivial functions should have a return type of int and return an mpi error code. Returning other values should be handled via "out parameters".
  • Any function that does any error handling should have fn_exit/fn_fail labels. They are expected by various macros.
  • There should usually only be one return point from the function. Use your best judgement to determine when to ignore this guideline, but remember that it can be hard to change a function later to return an error code back up the stack from a lower level function.
  • The fn_fail label provides an opportunity to cleanup after an error but before the function returns. It serves a very similar role to a catch block in C++ or Java.
  • Returning errors from a lower level function should be handled with MPIU_ERR_POP. We do this by hand to effectively get exception-like handling in a language that does not actually have exception handling. The MPIU_ERR_POP macro is essential to building the stack trace for the final error message.

Convenience Macros and Best Practices

These macros all expand to an invocation of MPIR_Err_create_code but are much less verbose than using that function directly. The messages should be message keys from src/mpi/errhan/errnames.txt:0 and friends. For versions that take arguments in printf style this should have a general message and a specific message. The specific message contains format specifiers that indicate the types of the arguments. See **argnonpos in the aforementioned file for an example. These functions all require that a fn_fail label is defined in the current function.

MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP(error_lvalue, class, message)

Create an error code with class class using the error message in message. Store this error code in error_lvalue and jump to the fn_fail label. This is typically invoked as something like this: MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP(mpi_errno, MPI_ERR_OTHER, "**nomem")

MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP1(error_lvalue, class, general_message, specific_message, arg1)
MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP2(error_lvalue, class, general_message, specific_message, arg1, arg2)
MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP3(error_lvalue, class, general_message, specific_message, arg1, arg2, arg3)
MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP4(error_lvalue, class, general_message, specific_message, arg1, arg2, arg3, arg4)

These are similar to plain SETANDJUMP except they take additional arguments that should be formatted according to the specific_message argument in snprintf style. They are intentionally not varargs (...) macros for portability reasons.

MPIU_ERR_CHKANDJUMP(condition, error_lvalue, class, message)

Effectively equivalent to: if ((condition)) MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP((error_lvalue), (class), (message));. Analogous to SETANDJUMP[1-4] are the CHKANDJUMP[1-4] macros that take format string arguments.

MPIU_ERR_SETANDSTMT(error_lvalue, class, statement, message)

A generalization of SETANDJUMP. Instead of goto fn_fail as the action after creating the error code, statement is performed. This is primarily used to implement the other macros, but you could use it to break out of a loop or perform some other action. Just don't forget that the whole reason that you used this macro was as a less verbose way to create an error code, so make sure that you don't lose it in subsequent actions. Also, there is a conditional version of this named MPIU_ERR_CHKANDSTMT.

MPIU_ERR_POP(error_lvalue)

This simply calls MPIU_ERR_SETANDJUMP(error_lvalue, MPI_ERR_OTHER, "**fail"). This should be used as shown in the skeleton/example in the section above. The main reason to use it is that it inserts the current function into the stack trace in the final error message. Simply returning the error code to the function above will make the current function "disappear" in the stack trace.

Checking for Errors

Error checking should be performed on user input values. Internal routines need not duplicate these checks (for example, once a top-level MPI routine has verified that an MPI_Request handle is a valid handle, the internal routines such as MPID_Startall and MPID_Request_release_ref do not need to check for an invalid handle.

Error checks should either use the macros defined in src/include/mpierrs.h or should be surrounded with

#ifdef HAVE_ERROR_CHECKING
...
#endif

as illustrated in the sample code template. In addition to allowing the compile-time generation of the fastest code for debugged, production applications, this style allows the coverage analyzer to recognize error checking blocks and to exclude them from reports about code that is not exercised by the test suites.

Memory Allocation in MPICH

Memory corruption and leaks of dynamically-allocated memory is a common and difficult-to-debug problem. To make it easier to test and diagnose these problems in MPICH, we use a special set of memory allocation macros. These allow us to use the regular malloc etc. routines when MPICH is used in production and to turn on extensive memory tracing and arena checking for both debugging and memory leak checks. The macro names and their corresponding functions are:

MPIU_Malloc  - malloc
MPIU_Calloc  - calloc
MPIU_Free    - free
MPIU_Strdup  - strdup
MPIU_Realloc - realloc

The definitions are in src/include/mpimem.h. The MPIU_xxx functions should be used everywhere; there is no cost when MPICH is built for normal use and they enable valuable memory usage checking.

As an example of the benefit of using the 'MPIU_Malloc' set of names, here is an example that recently occurred. A test failed with a SIGSEGV. Reconfiguring with --enable-g=mem and rebuilding (make; make install) and then rerunning the failing test produced the following:

mpiexec -n 2 spaiccreate
[0] Block at address 0x0810e5f8 is corrupted (probably write past end)
[0] Block allocated in cts/software/mpich/src/mpid/ch3/src/mpidi_pg.c[605]
[0]0:Return code = 0, signaled with Segmentation fault

From this, is was easy to identify the source of the problem (in this case, a mis-computation of the buffer size).

A special case of memory allocation is alloca. This routine is not available on all systems (it allocates memory from the stack, simplifying the handling of memory needed only within a function). Instead of providing an MPIU_Alloca function, MPICH provides a set of macros to simplify the steps needed to free memory that is allocated within a routine. These macros will use alloca if it is available and will properly free memory if it is not.

Memory allocated within a routine can either be local, intended for use only within that routine to be freed before exit, and persistent, intended to be used after the routine exits. However, even in the case of persistent memory, in the case of an error, it may be necessary to free the allocated memory before exiting the routine to avoid a storage leak. To handle these cases, MPICH provides a set of macros for allocating one or more chunks of memory and ensuring that they are freed properly on routine exit (for local memory) or on an error (for both local and persistent memory).

For persistent memory, the macros are:

MPIU_CHKPMEM_DECL(n)
Declaration used within any routine that uses the persistent memory routines. The value of n is the max number of items that will be allocated
MPIU_CHKPMEM_MALLOC( pointer, type, nbytes, mpi_errno, name )
Sort of pointer = (type)MPIU_Malloc( nbytes ); if (!pointer) { message about name; goto fn_fail; }
MPIU_CHKPMEM_COMMIT
Transfer responsibility for freeing any memory on error to someone else
MPIU_CHKPMEM_REAP
Free any memory not committed

For local memory:

MPIU_CHKLMEM_DECL(n)
Declaration used within any routine that uses the persistent memory routines. The value of n is the max number of items that will be allocated
MPIU_CHKLMEM_MALLOC(pointer, type, nbytes, mpi_errno, name)
Allocate memory; roughly like
pointer = (type)alloca(nbytes);
if (!pointer) { 
  message about name
  go to fn_fail;
}
MPIU_CHKLMEM_FREEALL
Free all local memory

The above routines depend on the presence of a label fn_fail to which these routines will jump if an error, such as a null return from MPIU_Malloc, occurs. There are additional macros that allow you to jump to a different label or to execute different code on an error; see the source file for details.

Here is an example sketch of a routine that uses these macros. For an example within the MPICH code, see src/mpi/topo/cart_create.c.

 int MPIR_foo( int n )
 {
 ... other declarations
 int *foo_ptr, *foo2_ptr;
 doube *d1;
 MPIU_CHKPMEM_DECL(2);
 MPIU_CHKLMEM_DECL(1);
 ...
 MPIU_CHKPMEM_MALLOC(foo_ptr,int*,n*sizeof(int),mpi_errno,"foo_ptr");
 MPIU_CHKPMEM_MALLOC(foo2_ptr,int*,n*2*sizeof(int),mpi_errno,"foo2_ptr");
 ...
 MPIU_CHKLMEM_MALLOC(d1,double*,10*sizeof(double),mpi_errno,"d1");
 ...
 
 /* Free all local memory before a normal exit */
 MPIU_CHKLMEM_FREEALL;
 return mpi_errno;
 
 /* The code jumps to this label on an error exit */
 fn_fail:
   MPIU_CHKPMEM_REAP;
   MPIU_CHKLMEM_FREEALL;
   ...

Rationale for the design:

  1. All memory allocations are checked; failure causes an error return (i.e., set mpi_errno and goto fn_fail).
  2. If multiple memory allocations have been made and a failure occurs (in a memory routine or not), all allocated memory that is freed unless it is known to be OK (e.g., memory attached to an MPI object that is still valid need not be freed, but, for example, if an error is detected in creating an MPI Datatype, any memory allocated so far must be freed)
  3. Code uniformity and Conciseness - we'd like all errors to be handled the same way, and the block of code to be small (ideally one line).

In addition to the above, it is very important to null references to space that is freed. Failure to do this can create difficult-to-find bugs; for example, a bug in programs that used MPI_Comm_disconnect was eventually (after several months!) tracked down to a failure to zero the pointer to the connection (specifically, the vc->ch.conn pointer) when the connection was freed.

Marking Source Code for Coverage Testing

MPICH makes use of automated code coverage analysis. To make this analysis more useful, the source code can be annotated to indicate blocks of code that should not be flagged as uncovered. Examples of such code are sections that provide error handling and reporting, experimental code segments, and code used only for internal debugging. To avoid "false positives", these should be marked with

/* --BEGIN name-- */
 ... code that can be ignored by coverage analyzer ...
/* --END name-- */

where name is on of the following:

DEBUG
Used for blocks of debugging code
ERROR HANDLING
Used for blocks of error handling and reporting code
EXPERIMENTAL
Used for experimental code
USEREXTENSION
Used for code that provides hooks to user-provided extensions, and thus are not part of the regular tests.

In addition to these annotations, the coverage analyzer knows about commonly used error reporting routines and macros; code that matches the following regular expressions will be treated as if is it surrounded with an "ERROR HANDLING" block:

FUNC_EXIT.*STATE
MPIR_Err_return_
MPIU_ERR_SET
MPIU_ERR_POP
goto\s+fn_fail
fn_fail:
MPIR_Err_create_code

In addition, the coverage analyzer recognizes the error checking block

#ifdef HAVE_ERROR_CHECKING
...
#endif

and will automatically treat code within this block (or to a #else) as being an "ERROR HANDLING" block. These special cases for error handling and reporting are provided to avoid requiring extra annotations for error handling and reporting statements.

If you are not sure whether to mark a block or not, it is best to not add any annotation until after the next coverage analysis is run; then check the output and decide if an annotation is necessary.

Alternative string routines

The standard string routines such as strcpy are very dangerous because they do not check that the destination memory is large enough to hold the result. No good code should use these routines; instead, routines that ensure that no more data than will fit into the destination memory should be used. Routines such as strncpy are acceptable replacements for these older routines.

However, the "n" versions of the string routines have several of their own problems. To start with, they often write exactly characters; strncpy copies the source string and then pads the destination string with nulls. In the routine strncat, the value of "n" is not length of the destination string; instead it is the maximum number of characters to take from the source string. This requires the user to first compute the current length of the destination string in order to ensure that data is not written past the end of the destination string.

MPICH provides several alternatives to the string routines that address these issues. They are

MPIU_Strncpy
Replaces strncpy, with the same arguments
MPIU_Strnapp
Replaces strncat, except n is the length of the destination string.
MPIU_Snprintf
A partial replacement for snprintf and sprintf, it handles format specifiers d, p, s, and x. It is provided for portability reasons, as not all systems at this writing provide snprintf. (MPICH will define MPIU_Snprintf as snprintf on systems where snprintf exists).

The implementation of these routines may be found in src/util/mem/safestr.c.

Printing messages

In order to maintain consistency over message formats, allow for internationalization, and to provide for systems without a notion of standard output, messages to the user should not be printed with the usual puts or printf functions. Instead, there are a set of MPIU functions in src/util/msgs/msgprint.c that should be used. These functions are

MPIU_Usage_printf
Used for "usage" messages
MPIU_Error_printf
Used for error messages (user errors)
MPIU_Internal_error_printf
Used for internal error messages (errors by the implementation not the user)
MPIU_Internal_sys_error_printf
Used for internal error messages; this form includes the error message from a system routine (typically accessed with strerror).
MPIU_Msg_printf
Other, non-error, message

The calling sequence of these routines is usually the same as that for printf. See the source file for details.

By using these routines, it is relatively easy to automatically extract the messages and set them up for internationalization. In addition, it is easy to extract and categorize the messages by intent.

Using asserts in MPICH

It is often helpful for debugging to add "asserts" into code. The assert is defined in /usr/include/assert.h, and can be turned into a no-op by defining NDEBUG. If the assertion fails, the assert macros calls abort.

In the case of MPICH programs, we prefer to call MPID_Abort because this can help ensure that any persistent resources, such as System V memory segments, are freed before the process exits. The MPID_Abort can also help the process manager to shut down the other processes. Finally, the use of our own macro for asserts gives us extra freedom in determining whether the asserts are enabled or not.

There are two MPIU assert macros that should be used instead of the C library assert:

MPIU_Assert
Similar to assert, it is present only if NDEBUG is not defined and HAVE_ERROR_CHECKING is defined.
MPIU_Assertp
Similar to assert, but always defined. This can be used for cases where the MPICH implementation cannot safely continue if the assertion is false.

Performance Tricks

Performance-critical code follows slightly different rules from other code. For example, it is very important to use const, restrict, and register to help the compiler avoid unnecessary loads and stores, and to make best use of machine registers. Different coding styles can also be very helpful; see for example the work on PhiPAC.

Some general suggestions:

  1. Reduce register and cache "pressure"
  2. Update all items on the same cache line in one place in the code
  3. Factor routines into smaller parts. Rather than use a branch within the routine, try to make each (major) branch into a separate routines, and then use those routines directly. Shorter routines are also easier on the compiler, which may find it easier to generate good instruction schedules. Note, however, that function calls do add overhead, so avoid too many function calls. Inlining by the compiler can help but is not yet dependable.
  4. Try to keep the argument count for performance-critical routines small (three or less). On many systems, these function calls may be faster.
  5. Aggregate tests and try to check the common case first

Note that there is a tension between measurement and modeling for determining whether different performance choices are appropriate. For a code with the lifetime of MPICH, decisions must not be based solely on measurements on any one system or even on a variety of systems. Such measurements can provide information about different approaches, but must be considered in the context future systems. An example is use of restrict and const in certain loops - until recently, few compilers even supported restrict, much less exploited it. However, it was always correct to make use of restrict where it makes semantic sense. Similarly, measurements of overhead in the low latency (small message) limit must be made very carefully (so that high overheads in other, unoptimized parts of the code don't hide any performance effects and that limitations or capabilities of current compilers and/or hardware don't improperly specialize the code to particular system).

You can use the following configure tests to check for these C features:

AC_C_CONST
C const
AC_C_INLINE
C inline
AC_C_RESTRICT (in newer versions of autoconf; for older versions, use PAC_C_RESTRICT)
C restrict

Using the restrict qualifier

Pointers in C are very powerful but that very generality makes it difficult or impossible for a compiler to perform some very important optimizations. For example, in optimizing the loop

 int *a, *b;
 for (i=0; i<n; i++) 
     b[i] = a[i];

a compiler might want to allow multiple load references to be issued before the stores, e.g., something like

 int *a, *b;
 register int a0,a1;
 for (i=0; i<n; i+=2) {
     a0 = a[i];
     a1 = a[i+1];
     b[i] = a0;
     b[i+1] = a1;
 }

However, this is not correct C, since it is possible that the pointer b is the same as a+1. The compile thus cannot perform this optimization without checking that the uses of a and b do not overlap. In most cases, the compiler simply assumes that they may overlap, and does not perform these kinds of memory-hierarchy optimizations.

C90 introduced the qualifier restrict that tells the compiler that the uses of a pointer describe memory that no other pointer will reference. This is used in the same way as const; for example

 int *restrict a, *restrict b;
 for (i=0; i<n; i++) 
     b[i] = a[i];

can now be optimized by a high-quality compiler.

Updating reference counts

Many of the MPI objects have reference count semantics. It is important that these reference counts are updating atomically, particularly in the multi-threaded case. To ensure that the updates are atomic, and to make it easier to keep track of such updates, there are a set of macros for updating the reference count of an MPI object. These have names such as MPIU_Object_add_ref and MPIU_Object_release_ref. However, these should not be used directly in the code. The reason is that it is important to be able to search for all of the code that updates the reference count on a particular object, such as a communicator or virtual connection, and this isn't easy when the general MPIU_Object_xxx macros are used. Thus, there are a family of macros for each object type, such as:


  MPIR_Comm_add_ref
  MPIR_Comm_release_ref

  MPIDI_VC_add_ref
  MPIDI_VC_release_ref

These are defined in mpiimpl.h or mpidimpl.h as appropriate (and the prefix, MPIR or MPIDI, indicates which include file contains the definition).

Adding new mpich control variables

See Tool interfaces (MPI-T), MPICH parameters and instrumentation

Adopting C99 and newer POSIX standards

MPICH assumes C89 and POSIX 2001 features for the most part with the exception of a few C99 and later POSIX features. The idea is to support compilers that follow these rules:

  • For free compilers: they should be provided on some supported distribution. We do not support old compilers that are not provided on any supported distribution. RHEL is our typical benchmark for this because of how slowly it incorporates new software releases.
  • For commercial compilers: they should be supported by the vendor. For some compilers, we might make an exception to pick slightly older versions than those supported by the vendor because some centers tend to provide multiple versions of the compiler, including old unsupported ones.

Several compiler vendors (PGI, Intel) do not provide version specific licenses anymore. If you have a valid license, you can update to the latest available version of the compiler. In such cases, they typically only support compilers released in the last 2-3 years. Our model is somewhat more conservative than this, because in such cases, we would be trying to support even compiler versions that the vendor itself is not supporting.

At least the following compilers should be checked before adding a feature to this list:

  • Clang 3.0
    • Release date: 2012
    • Other notes: Clang is a special case where we often only consider post Clang-3.0 in our feature-set selection. The reasons are two fold. First, clang as a compiler itself is so new that the old versions of the compiler are rarely used in production environments, especially since they were very buggy. Second, it's a free compiler making sticking with an old version less useful for users.
    • Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clang#Status_history
  • PGI 9.0
    • Release date: 2009
    • Other notes: PGI 2013 is the oldest compiler that is supported by PGI. We are making an exception in MPICH by checking with PGI 9.0 (which is an unsupported compiler). This is not based on a comprehensive survey, but based on the supercomputer centers that we have access to, this seems to be the oldest version around (though we did not find any center where this was the only version available).
    • Ref: http://www.pgroup.com/support/download_releases.php
  • Ekopath 5.0
    • First release: 5.0 in 2013
    • Other notes: Ekopath was open-sourced with version 4.0 and support for previous versions was dropped. On the Ekopath website, there's no model for supporting anything older than the latest version (6.0). We still check for 5.0 for MPICH.
    • Ref: http://www.pathscale.com/ekopath-compiler-suite
  • Fujitsu Softune Compiler
    • Need more information on this from the Fujitsu folks. To be updated.


Notes about specific compilers:

  • The Microsoft Visual Studio compiler is no longer being considered, despite its notorious lack of C99 support. This is because there are only two derivatives of MPICH that are built on Windows. The first is Intel MPI, which uses the Intel compiler for the builds, and hence does not require any support from the visual studio compiler. The second is Microsoft MPI, which has not upgraded to the newer versions of MPICH for more than 10 years.


Current Accepted C99 and POSIX 2001 Features in MPICH:

The following C99 and POSIX 2001 features are assumed to exist in MPICH. We check for these features in configure.ac and abort if any of them is not available.


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